Pluralization in Taino generally follows two main rules: 1) Loko-type pluralization and 2) Igneri-type pluralization.
1. Suffix of -No
As for Loko-type plurals, this rule will apply to words that are not derived with the suffixes of “-ti”.
In Loko, there are three main ways to make plurals. First, for nouns that describe human beings, the plural is done simply by adding the suffix “-no”. Therefore, we see the very word that the Lokono use to describe themselves uses this suffix (Loko + no). The obvious example in Taino is (Tai + no).
Other examples include the following:
Da’chilikichi, Da’chilikichino (My brother, my brothers); Wajili, Wajilino (man, men); Hiaro, Hiarono (Woman, Women)
hiñaru, hiñáruñu (Woman, Women); Chumagü, chumagünu (castellano, castellanos); itu, itunu (hermana, hermanas); adari, adárinu (novi@, novi@s)
Ínaru, Ínaruno (Woman,women); Makuri, makurino (foreigner, foreigners); Tiyawo, tiyawono (friend, friends).
Majáyülü, majáyünnu (young women, group of young women); jimóolu, jimóonnú (young girl, group of young girls)
Keep in mind, that because of pronunciation differences over the years, “-no” can also be seen as “-yo, -lo-, or ñu”, as well as other ways. Keep an eye out for this in all of the Arawakan family. Also, occasionally, the plural may be seen before the suffix –sh (Loko –chi), making the plural –nosh (-nochi). This ending is also used to emphasize familiarity and may not signify plurality. Keep a look out.
2. Suffix of –Be
In Loko, most non-human plurals are mad by adding –be. In Spanish, this would be pronounced “-Bi”. This includes animals and objects. In Taino, notice that one name for a savage individual is in fact “Bi”.
Examples would include:
Baka, bakabe (cow, cows); hime, himebe (fish); ada, adabe (tree, trees)
Bi, Bibi (savage, savages); mawey, maweybe (drum, drums); manati, manatibe (manatee, manatees)
3. Irregular: No suffix
The final rule is that, just as in English and other languages, some words do not have a plural to signify “more than one”.
This rule of pluralization applies to nouns and adjectives that are derived from the suffix “-Ti”. Keep in mind, “-Ti” can both nominalize and verbalize a concept. So for a complete treatment of the rule, see the post entitled “To Be or Not to Be in Taino”.
However, I will include the most pertinent examples in this note (pay attention to bold suffix):